- Research article
- Open Access
Semaphorin6A acts as a gate keeper between the central and the peripheral nervous system
© Mauti et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
- Received: 02 August 2007
- Accepted: 18 December 2007
- Published: 18 December 2007
During spinal cord development, expression of chicken SEMAPHORIN6A (SEMA6A) is almost exclusively found in the boundary caps at the ventral motor axon exit point and at the dorsal root entry site. The boundary cap cells are derived from a population of late migrating neural crest cells. They form a transient structure at the transition zone between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). Ablation of the boundary cap resulted in emigration of motoneurons from the ventral spinal cord along the ventral roots. Based on its very restricted expression in boundary cap cells, we tested for a role of Sema6A as a gate keeper between the CNS and the PNS.
Downregulation of Sema6A in boundary cap cells by in ovo RNA interference resulted in motoneurons streaming out of the spinal cord along the ventral roots, and in the failure of dorsal roots to form and segregate properly. PlexinAs interact with class 6 semaphorins and are expressed by both motoneurons and sensory neurons. Knockdown of PlexinA1 reproduced the phenotype seen after loss of Sema6A function both at the ventral motor exit point and at the dorsal root entry site of the lumbosacral spinal cord. Loss of either PlexinA4 or Sema6D function had an effect only at the dorsal root entry site but not at the ventral motor axon exit point.
Sema6A acts as a gate keeper between the PNS and the CNS both ventrally and dorsally. It is required for the clustering of boundary cap cells at the PNS/CNS interface and, thus, prevents motoneurons from streaming out of the ventral spinal cord. At the dorsal root entry site it organizes the segregation of dorsal roots.
- Dorsal Root Ganglion
- Neural Crest Cell
- Stop Signal
- Ventral Root
- Motor Axon
During development of the nervous system, axons navigate long distances to connect to their targets. Along their trajectories they encounter a large variety of guidance cues that support their navigation [1, 2]. Axon guidance cues are subdivided into long-range and short-range guidance cues. They belong to a relatively small number of protein families, the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules , the Eph/ephrins , the netrins [5, 6], the semaphorins [7, 8] and their receptors, plexins and neuropilins [9, 10]. More recently, morphogens such as Wnts and Shh have also been implicated in axon guidance [11–13].
The semaphorins comprise a large family subdivided into eight subclasses based on structural criteria and their expression in vertebrates or non-vertebrate organisms [7, 14, 15]. Class 1 and 2 semaphorins are expressed only in invertebrates, classes 3, 4, 6, and 7 are expressed only in vertebrates, class 5 semaphorins are expressed in both invertebrates and vertebrates, whereas class V consists of a viral semaphorin. With respect to their function, soluble class 3 semaphorins are the best characterized. They have been shown to act mainly as repellents but, in some cases, also as attractants for extending axons. Class 3 semaphorins bind to a receptor complex composed of Neuropilin-1 or -2 and a member of the class A plexins [10, 15], although there is at least one exception to this rule .
Plexins are expressed in a highly dynamic pattern during development of the nervous system [17–20]. They are subdivided into four classes comprising a total of nine members in mammals and seven members in chicken . Plexins of class A and B were shown to bind to transmembrane semaphorins in the absence of neuropilins [21, 22]. PlexinBs are receptors for class 4 semaphorins, whereas PlexinAs were shown to be receptors for class 6 semaphorins [22–25]. Interestingly, transmembrane semaphorins have functions in axon guidance and synapse formation that are independent of neuropilins . The long cytoplasmic tail of Sema6A contains binding sites for Ena/VASP-like protein EVL and may, therefore, directly regulate cytoskeletal dynamics . Consistent with these structural features, Sema6A was suggested to act as a receptor , similar to findings for Sema1a, the closest ortholog of Sema6A in invertebrates . Sema1a was shown to act both as a repellent [29, 30] and as an attractant . A receptor function for Sema1a was reported in the visual system of Drosophila, where photoreceptor cells depended on Sema1a for their targeting to the optic lobe .
In mammals, Sema6A was shown to affect pathfinding of thalamocortical axons  and to be required for cell migration in the cerebellum . The mode of action has not been determined in these studies but, based on the expression pattern and the analysis of the phenotypes, a repulsive mechanism has been suggested in the latter. This would be consistent with in vitro studies that demonstrated a repulsive role of Sema6A on sympathetic axons [22, 34]. More recently, a repellent activity of Sema6D on proprioceptive sensory afferents has been shown in both mouse and chicken . The targeting of proprioceptive axons was dependent on PlexinA1 mediating the repulsive activity of Sema6C/D. PlexinA1 was also shown to be the binding partner of Sema6D in neural crest cell migration during heart development . In these studies a receptor function of Sema6D was demonstrated . Thus, transmembrane class 6 semaphorins are bifunctional molecules in axon guidance and cell migration. They can act as a ligand for PlexinAs but also transmit a signal themselves.
In vertebrates, the receptors for Sema6A in cerebellar development have not been identified. However, in vitro binding studies have indicated that Sema6A can bind to PlexinA2 and A4 , whereas Sema6B binds to PlexinA1and A4 , Sema6C was suggested to bind to PlexinD1 , and finally Sema6D was shown to bind to PlexinA1 in neural crest cell migration [23, 24].
Analysis of SEMA6A expression during chicken spinal cord development revealed its restriction to the ventral ventricular zone, the origin of oligodendrocytes, and, most strikingly, to cells at the ventral motor axon exit point (VMEP) and the dorsal sensory axons entry point. Cells located at the transition zone between the PNS and the CNS were shown to have gate keeper function [36, 37]. In analogy to their function they are called boundary cap cells (BCCs). BCCs are derived from a late migrating population of neural crest cells . They express Krox20 and the 1E8 antigen in addition to the more general neural crest marker Sox10. BCCs are necessary to prevent emigration of motoneurons from the ventral spinal cord . More recently, the boundary cap was identified as a source of neural crest stem cells that give rise to glia and sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) [39–41].
Here, we show that Sema6A is required for the gate keeper function of BCCs, as in the absence of Sema6A BCCs fail to cluster properly at the CNS/PNS interface and, thus, cannot prevent the emigration of motoneurons in a PlexinA1-dependent manner. At the dorsal root entry site Sema6A is required for the appropriate segregation of dorsal roots.
SEMA6A is expressed in boundary cap cells
Sema6A is required to keep motoneurons from migrating out of the ventral spinal cord
Sema6A is required for appropriate entry of sensory afferents into the dorsal spinal cord
Interestingly, in contrast to our findings at the VMEP, downregulation of Sema6D resulted in a dorsal phenotype (Figure 3c,d). Embryos lacking Sema6D were, overall, not much different from embryos lacking Sema6A. In only 9% of the embryos were arrangement and number of dorsal roots normal. Sixty-eight percent of the embryos exhibited a strong phenotype, and 23% a weak phenotype. Downregulation of Sema6B resulted in a qualitatively different phenotype. Despite the fact that DRGs exhibited a mushroom-like shape (Figure 3e), the number and the arrangement of the roots were much less affected (data not shown; Figure 3d).
PlexinAs, known receptors for Sema6A, are expressed by motoneurons and sensory neurons
Next we analyzed the effect of PlexinA downregulation at the dorsal root entry site. In the absence of PlexinA1 and PlexinA4 (Figure 5c,d), we found phenotypes that resembled those seen after downregulation of Sema6A and Sema6D (Figure 3b,c). Downregulation of PlexinA1 perturbed dorsal root formation and segregation in the vast majority of the embryos. Only 17% of the embryos had normal DRGs (Figure 5f). Seventy percent of them exhibited a strong phenotype. Detailed analysis of the embryos lacking PlexinA1 revealed that the phenotype was qualitatively different from the phenotype seen in the absence of Sema6A. In addition to fusions of adjacent DRGs, we found a different type of DRG shape to predominate in embryos lacking PlexinA1. DRGs were narrower than normal and had a reduced number of roots. The distance between the most anterior and the most posterior fiber emanating from a single DRG was much shorter than the width of the DRG. Therefore, we qualified these DRGs as mushroom-like (Figure 3e). Variable shapes of DRGs were found after loss of PlexinA4 function, where 48% of the embryos exhibited a strong phenotype. In both cases it was sometimes not possible to identify individual DRGs, as they were fused across spinal cord segments. In the absence of PlexinA1, only 17% of the embryos had normal DRGs, and in the absence of PlexinA4, only 33% had normal DRGs. Downregulation of PlexinA2 did not show an effect on dorsal root arrangement; 60% of the embryos were normal. Aberrant root arrangement and mushroom-shaped DRGs were only found in 13% of the embryos.
Sensory but not motor axons are repelled by Sema6A
DRG and sympathetic axons avoid Sema6A-expressing COS cells
53.3 ± 4.7
5.9 ± 1.6
40.8 ± 4.7
15.5 ± 2.5
18.3 ± 3.0
66.1 ± 4.2
15.1 ± 2.2
9.0 ± 1.2
75.9 ± 1.7
17.6 ± 4.6
9.5 ± 2.1
72.9 ± 4.0
14.6 ± 1.3
14.9 ± 2.1
70.5 ± 3.0
18.5 ± 3.6
10.2 ± 2.2
71.3 ± 1.4
68.0 ± 2.6
3.1 ± 1.1
28.9 ± 3.4
2.9 ± 0.4
31.7 ± 1.1
65.4 ± 1.2
14.5 ± 1.7
14.9 ± 1.4
70.6 ± 3.1
The effect of Sema6A in PNS/CNS border control is caused by a defect in BCC clustering
As an alternative approach to block the interaction between PlexinAs on motor axons and Sema6A on BCCs, we expressed the ectodomain or full-length Sema6A in motoneurons, where normally no Sema6A is found in chick (except for a transient expression at HH26; Figure 1m). Providing Sema6A on motor axons would prevent PlexinA1 from interacting with Sema6A on BCCs because it would compete with BCC-derived Sema6A. BCC clusters would thus fail to form properly due to the absence of the stop signal (Figure 8e) and motoneurons would stream out of the spinal cord at the VMEP just as found after either Sema6A downregulation in BCCs or PlexinA1 downregulation in motoneurons. This is indeed what we observed (Figure 8c).
In summary, our results support the hypothesis that Sema6A on BCCs interacts with PlexinA1 on motor axons to recognize the VMEP, where BCCs aggregate and cluster to form a barrier for motor neurons but not motor axons. If the BCC clusters fail to form properly, they cannot fulfill this barrier function and motoneurons stream out of the spinal cord along the ventral roots.
Entry and exit sites of the CNS are well controlled transition areas that are permissive for axons but not for cell bodies during development due to the presence of the BCCs. The boundary cap is a transient structure that disappears at postnatal day 6 in the rat . In chicken, BCC clusters labeled by KROX20 or SEMA6A disappear between HH36 and HH40 (Figure 1). They are replaced by a non-permissive barrier at the CNS/PNS interface consisting of astrocytes and Schwann cells [36, 49]. BCCs originate from a late-migrating population of neural crest cells . So far, they had been identified only after clustering by their expression of KROX20 and Cadherin-7. A time course of SEMA6A expression analyzed in transverse sections from the lumbosacral region of the embryonic chicken spinal cord suggests that BCCs express SEMA6A while they still migrate toward and cluster at the entry and exit sites of the spinal cord (Figure 1). The confined expression of SEMA6A in boundary cap cells together with the striking observation by Vermeren and colleagues  that ablation of BCC clusters resulted in the emigration of motoneurons from the ventral spinal cord into the periphery motivated us to test for a role of Sema6A in BCCs as a gate keeper between the CNS and the PNS. Indeed, we found that knock-down of Sema6A resulted in the same phenotype as ablation of the boundary cap (compare Figure 2 to ). In the absence of Sema6A from BCCs, motoneurons left the spinal cord along the ventral roots. This effect was specific for loss of Sema6A function. Downregulation of other class 6 semaphorins did not enhance the number of motoneurons found outside the spinal cord compared to control-treated embryos. The fact that we could detect a phenotype of Sema6D loss of function for the dorsal root entry site but not for the ventral motor exit point further confirms the specificity of our approach. Downregulation of a target gene with long dsRNA was specific and efficient, as shown previously [48, 50]. The specificity of downregulation was also corroborated by the use of dsRNA derived from a second non-overlapping fragment of cDNA from the 3' end of SEMA6A (data not shown).
Motoneurons leaving the spinal cord were only found after downregulation of Sema6A, while the effect at the dorsal root entry site was also seen after perturbation of Sema6D function, despite the fact that SEMA6D was expressed in ventral and dorsal BCCs. Similarly, downregulation of PlexinA1 had an effect at both the VMEP and the DREZ; loss of PlexinA4 function had an effect only dorsally. The phenotype observed after perturbation of PlexinA1 and PlexinA4 differed from loss of Sema6A/6D function, consistent with a role of class A plexins as receptors for secreted class 3 semaphorins. In the absence of PlexinA1, DRGs were misplaced along the rostrocaudal axis and they were not clearly segregated from each other (Figure 5). These observations are in agreement with studies reporting a role of plexin/neuropilin complexes in the restriction of neural crest migration to the anterior somite [51, 52]. Restricted migration through the anterior somite was shown to be essential for the segmental organization of the PNS [53–55]. Thus, in the absence of PlexinA1, not only did dorsal roots fail to segregate properly, as seen after loss of Sema6A function, but the arrangement of the DRGs was also perturbed.
According to our model, Sema6A would act as a receptor when expressed in BCCs and recognize PlexinA1 as a ligand. A receptor role for Sema6A has been suggested previously in the brain, where Sema6A was shown to be required for the appropriate targeting of thalamocortical axons . Similarly, a receptor function for Sema6D in neural crest cell migration in heart development was described [23, 24]. A receptor function for class 6 semaphorins is also consistent with structural features .
Our model is supported by the aberrant clustering of BCCs in the absence of either Sema6A from BCCs or the absence of PlexinA1 from motoneurons (Figure 7). In the absence of Sema6A, BCCs fail to recognize the exit site marked by the first motor axons extending into the periphery, the boundary cap fails to form correctly and, as a consequence, motoneurons are no longer confined to the ventral spinal cord and migrate into the periphery following their axons (Figure 9). The same effect is achieved when PlexinA1 is downregulated in motoneurons. In this case motor axons are unable to provide a stop signal for migrating BCCs. Similarly, the PlexinA1 stop signal can be masked by expression of soluble Sema6A ectodomain or full-length Sema6A in motoneurons. In both cases motor axon-derived Sema6A would compete with Sema6A on the surface of BCCs and result in the aberrant formation of BCC clusters.
In addition to its function as a stop signal for Sema6A-expressing BCCs, PlexinA1 serves as a co-receptor together with neuropilins for class 3 semaphorins. Sema3A was postulated to act as a surround repellent and, thus, to polarize growth of sensory axons during initial stages of development . Later, class 3 semaphorins were shown to interfere with motor and sensory axon pathfinding [2, 58–64]. Their effects were mediated by binding to either Neuropilin-1 or Neuropilin-2 associated with one of the class A plexins as the signal transducing part of the receptor.
Chicken embryos express only three PlexinAs, as the gene encoding PlexinA3 is missing from the chicken genome . Similarly, chickens express only three class 6 semaphorins; an ortholog of Sema6C is not found. Therefore, a direct comparison of PlexinA/Sema6 interactions between mouse/human and chicken proteins is not possible. This may explain why, so far, a direct interaction between Sema6A and PlexinA1 has not been demonstrated . The repulsive activity of Sema6A was found to be mediated by PlexinA4 [22, 65]. In our in vivo assays PlexinA4 had an effect only at the dorsal root entry but not at the ventral motor axon exit site. In our in vitro assay, sensory but not motor axons were repelled by Sema6A, despite the fact that all PlexinAs were expressed by sensory and motor neurons . Sema6D was expressed in both dorsal and ventral BCCs but had an effect only at the dorsal root entry zone.
Future experiments will have to elucidate the difference between Sema6A and Sema6D in BCCs and, thus, their different roles in gate keeping between the PNS and the CNS. Obviously, the mechanism differs between the ventral and the dorsal transition zone. Motor axons were not repelled by Sema6A but sensory axons were (Figure 6 and Table 1). The reason for this discrepancy is unknown.
Sema6A expression by BCCs acts as a gate keeper between the PNS and the CNS by organizing the segregation of dorsal root entry and ventral motor axon exit sites. In both cases Sema6A on BCCs appears to act as a receptor recognizing the stop signal provided by PlexinA1 on axons. As a consequence, BCCs aggregate at the dorsal root entry site and the VMEP. BCCs then form clusters, possibly mediated by Cadherin-7, resulting in a tight barrier that prevents motor neurons from streaming out of the ventral spinal cord along the ventral roots. At the dorsal root entry site the BCCs segregate and organize dorsal roots. Consistent with these observations, Sema6A was found to be a repellent for sensory but not for motor axons.
Cloning of the chicken SEMA6A cDNA
A 728 base-pair fragment of chicken SEMAPHORIN6A obtained in a screen for axon guidance cues  was used to screen a λ ZAP library prepared from E14 chicken brains . Two fragments encoding the entire open reading frame (ORF) were ligated and cloned into pBluescript. For the preparation of in situ probes and dsRNA we used mainly a fragment spanning the 5' untranslated region and the first 300 base-pairs from the ORF. In addition, we verified the specificity of the phenotype using a fragment from the 3' untranslated region. The alignment of these fragments with SEMA6B and SEMA6D did not result in any significant similarity.
To obtain a soluble AP-tagged ectodomain of Sema6A, the sequence corresponding to the ectodomain of chicken Sema6A (amino acids 1–604) was amplified and inserted into the APtag-2 vector . COS7 cells were transiently transfected with the Sema6A ectodomain-containing plasmid using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). After transfection cells were washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and grown for 4 days in MEM and 1% fetal calf serum. The supernatant was collected and centrifuged as described in . Binding of AP-tagged Sema6A to cryosections was carried out as described in . Full-length Sema6A with a myc tag was expressed under the control of the β-actin promoter. The plasmid was injected at a concentration of 1 μg/μl into the central canal of the spinal cord of E2.5 embryos followed by electroporation of the ventral spinal cord. The embryos were sacrificed at E5 and analyzed.
Preparation of in situprobes and dsRNA
Probes for in situ hybridization and dsRNA were produced from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained from Geneservice Ltd . The ESTs used were: ChEST225N10 (SEMAPHORIN6D), ChEST53D13 and 666O16 (PLEXINA1), ChEST128L21 and 297D11 (PLEXINA2), ChEST1014M19 and 202O14 (PLEXINA4). For SEMAPHORIN6A the cDNA fragment mentioned above was used. For SEMA6B a cDNA fragment was cloned using RT-PCR because no ESTs were available. Total RNA was prepared from HH30 (stage 30 chicken embryos according to Hamburger and Hamilton ) spinal cords. Random and oligo dT-primed first-strand cDNAs were generated using Superscript II reverse transcriptase according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen). A 656 base-pair fragment for SEMA6B was amplified using the antisense primer 5'-CCCATGTCGTTCTTGCAC-3' and the sense primer 5'-ATCCAGCGCATCCTCAAG-3'. The resulting PCR fragments were cloned into the TOPO TA cloning vector (Invitrogen) using EcoRI restriction sites (Gemayel et al., in preparation). We carefully compared and selected sequences to avoid overlapping stretches that could potentially interfere with RNAi specificity. In fact, off-target effects or unspecific knock-down of related family members were never detected in our approach with long dsRNA, most likely because the concentration of each small interfering RNA produced in a given cell by Dicer is extremely low, with a theoretical maximal concentration of about 1 nM or less [48, 50].
In situ probes for the detection of KROX20 and SOX10 mRNA were derived from ESTs 738N7 and 477F10, respectively. Plasmid DNA was linearized using restriction enzymes NotI, EcoRI, XbaI, HindIII, or Asp718 (all from Roche, Basel, Switzerland) to prepare either digoxigenin-labeled in situ probes  or dsRNA  by in vitro transcription as described previously.
In ovo RNAi was used to knock down genes of interest as described previously . In brief, fertilized eggs were windowed on the second day of incubation to get access to the embryo. Embryos were staged according to Hamburger and Hamilton  at the time of injection. A solution containing the dsRNA (200–300 ng/μl) and a plasmid encoding EGFP under the control of the β-actin promoter (50 ng/μl) was injected into the central canal of the spinal cord of HH12-14 embryos to efficiently transfect neural crest cells and motoneurons . The lumbosacral region of the spinal cord was electroporated with 5 pulses of 18 Volts and 50 ms length with a 1 s interpulse interval. Eggs were sealed and put back into the incubator until embryos reached the desired stage. Embryos were sacrificed at HH25 for the analysis of motoneurons and at HH25/26 for the analysis of dorsal roots.
For analysis of phenotypes, embryos were sacrificed, eviscerated and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS for 60' to 120' depending on the age. Embryos were rinsed in PBS and subjected to cryoprotection or used directly for whole-mount staining as detailed below. For immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, the cryoprotected tissue was frozen in isopentane on dry ice and cut into 25 μm thick sections. In situ hybridization was carried out as detailed previously . For immunohistochemistry, the staining protocol described earlier  was used. Antibodies were diluted in blocking buffer (10% fetal calf serum in PBS). For permeabilization of the tissue, sections were incubated for 1' in 0.1% Triton-X-100. The antibodies used were: monoclonal antibodies 1E8 recognizing P0, 40.2D6 recognizing Isl-1, and 9E10 recognizing the myc tag (all from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA) Furthermore, we used rabbit anti-neurofilament (Millipore, Billerica, MA), and a FITC-labeled goat anti-GFP antibody (Rockland, Gilbertsville, PA). Secondary antibodies were: goat anti-mouse IgG Cy3 (Jackson ImmunoResearch Newmarket, Suffolk, UK), goat anti-rabbit Alexa350, and goat anti-rabbit Alexa488 (both Invitrogen/Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA).
Neurofilament staining of whole-mount embryos
For whole-mount staining, embryos were sacrificed at HH25/26, fixed as described above and transferred to 24-well plates. Tissue was permeabilized in 1% Triton/PBS for 1 h at room temperature, rinsed in PBS, and incubated in 20 mM lysine in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.3) for another hour. After rinsing thoroughly in PBS, embryos were incubated in blocking buffer (10% fetal calf serum in PBS) for at least two hours before the anti-neurofilament antibody (RMO270 from Zymed/Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, diluted 1:1,500) was added for 48 h at 4°C. Incubation with the secondary antibody (goat anti-mouse IgG Cy3, 1:250) was for 12 h. EGFP was visualized with a FITC-labeled goat anti-GFP antibody. Embryos were rinsed thoroughly and dehydrated in a graded series of methanol before transfer to benzyl benzoate/benzyl alcohol (2:1).
Quantification of the phenotypes
Experimental embryos and control-treated embryos that were injected and electroporated with the plasmid encoding EGFP only were sacrificed at HH25/26. Tissue preparation, cutting and staining was as detailed above. From each embryo lumbosacral sections were analyzed by an observer who was blind to the treatment group. Sections were classified into groups containing either 0–1, or more than one Isl-1-positive cell along the root. All sections that contained EGFP and the ventral roots were analyzed and scored. The percentage of sections per embryo containing more than one motoneuron outside the spinal cord was calculated.
For the analysis of the phenotype at the dorsal root entry site, embryos were sacrificed at HH25/26 and stained with RMO270 and goat anti-mouse IgG Cy3 as whole-mounts as detailed above. For the analysis of the segregation of DRGs and dorsal roots, a dissection microscope equipped with fluorescence optics (Olympus SZX12) was used. Single fibers crossing to the adjacent DRG or irregular spacing was considered a weak phenotype. When roots were formed by sensory axons emanating from two DRGs or when the DRGs were fused, the embryo was scored as having a severe phenotype. For statistical analysis, we used two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. Values represent mean ± standard error of the mean.
COS7 cells grown on 8-well LabTek slides were transfected with pcDNA3.1 vectors containing myc-tagged SEMA6A, myc-tagged AXONIN-1, or farnesylated EGFP (Invitrogen) as a control using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen). Sensory and sympathetic ganglia were dissected from HH26 or HH35 embryos. Motoneurons were obtained from the ventral halves of spinal cords dissected from HH26-28 embryos. Single-cell suspensions were obtained by digestion of ganglia and ventral spinal cord junks with trypsin followed by trituration. Per well, 25,000 DRG or sympathetic neurons or twice as many motoneurons were plated. DRG and sympathetic neurons were cultured in serum-free medium containing 20 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) (see  for details). Motoneurons were cultured in MEM containing 5% fetal calf serum, N3, and 1 mM sodium pyruvate. Neurons were grown on transfected COS cells for one (DRG, sympathetic neurons) or two days (motoneurons) before fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde for 30 minutes at room temperature and staining with the 9E10 antibody (Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank) to detect successfully transfected cells and rabbit anti-neurofilament to stain axons.
Cultures were analyzed and the behavior of axons encountering a transfected COS cell was classified as avoidance if an axon stopped or turned away from a transfected cell, or as attraction if an axon failed to leave the surface of a transfected cell. We chose Axonin-1 as a control protein because it was shown to promote axon outgrowth of sensory neurons [73, 74]. In addition, Axonin-1 was shown to be required for pathfinding of nociceptive afferents  and axons of dorsolateral commissural neurons [48, 76] but not for extension of commissural axons .
We thank Maja Hess for excellent technical assistance, members of the lab for suggestions and reading the manuscript. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and the NCCR Brain Plasticity and Repair.
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