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Table 2 Key regulators and their function in the development of the autonomic nervous system

From: Sympathetic tales: subdivisons of the autonomic nervous system and the impact of developmental studies

Cranial

Thoracolumbar

Sacral

Preganglionic neurons

 Phox2b, Phox2aa

 –

Olig2b

Olig2c

 .

HoxC9d

nd

 Tbx20e

 –

FoxP1f

FoxP1g

 –

Isl2h

nd

Postganglionic neurons

 –

Gata3i

Gata3j

 –

Hand1k

Hand1l

 Hand2m

Hand2n

nd

 –

HoxB8o

nd

 Hmx1p

Hmx1q

nd

 Hmx2 and 3r

-r

-r

  1. In this table transcriptional regulators are shown which are differentially expressed between preganglionic and postganglionic autonomic neurons at different levels of the rostrocaudal axis
  2. aprogenitor domain specific expression [228]; neuronal differentiation, subtype specific marker expression [89, 229]; cell cycle exit promotion, controls migration to mantle layer [229]; pan neuronal induction, synchronization of subtype specification; repression of Olig 2 expression [175], neurite outgrowth, neuronal migration [176], promotion of TBX 20 and TBX 2 expression [152]; requirement for preganglionic neuron development [154]
  3. bprogenitor domain specific expression; neuronal glial subtype choice [230, 231]; requirement for preganglionic neuron development [154]
  4. crequirement for preganglonic neuron development [154]
  5. dmRNA in embryonic mouse spinal cord caudal to T3; area of postmitotic cells [232]; protein in chick embryo; caudal brachial through thoracic; area of postmitotic cells [233]; expression in progenitors, differentiation requirement, neuronal migration [234]; axonal projection [235]; control of FoxP1 expression [235, 236]
  6. eembryonic expression [154, 237]; cell migration [177]
  7. fembryonic expression [154, 236]; segregation of motor neuron fates [236, 238]; axon projection [238]
  8. gembryonic expression [154]
  9. hexpression in somatic motoneurons (sm) but not in visceromotor (vm) or branchiomotor (bm) neurons in the hindbrain [227, 239, 240]; sm and vm/bm neurons at hindbrain levels are derived from different progenitors, whereas both are derived from the same progenitor in the spinal cord [212]; transient Isl2 expression required for preganglionic neuron development [212]
  10. iexpression in embryonic mouse sympathetic ganglia [241]; differential expression in cranial parasympathetic versus sympathetic ganglia in mouse embryo [154]; lethality in mutant embryos, noradrenaline deficiency [242]; disturbed differentiation in mutant embryos [173, 225]; survival requirement in embryos and adult animals [174]
  11. jexpression in pelvic ganglion [154]
  12. kexpression in mouse SCG during embryonic, postnatal and adult stage, survival requirement, regulates TrkA expression [243]; embryonic expression in mouse sympathetic ganglia [154]
  13. lexpression in embryonic pelvic ganglion [154]
  14. mHand2 is expressed in the mouse sphenopalatine ganglion and is not connected to noradrenergic phenotype expression [147]; absence from majority of embryonic chick ciliary neurons [146, 148]
  15. nexpression in chick sympathetic ganglia [244];cross-regulation with Phox2b, noradrenergic induction [226]; Hand1 induction [223, 245]; Th and Dbh induction [150, 223, 224]; maintenance of Th and Dbh expression [149]
  16. oexpression in chick embryonic sympathetic ganglia, absence from embryonic chick ciliary ganglia, Hand2 induction in neural crest progenitors, Th and Dbh inductionin neural crest progenitors [148]
  17. ptransient expression in mouse ciliary ganglion [246]
  18. qmaintained expression in mouse sympathetic ganglia, required for TrkA expression, for Th maintenance, not for Vmat2 and Dbh [143]
  19. rexpression in mouse parasympathetic ganglia but not in mouse sympathetic and pelvic ganglia [154]
  20. nd Not determined