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Table 3 Known pathways that contribute to cell and synapse engulfment

From: Microglia in the developing retina

C1q/C3Mice deficient in complement protein C1q or the downstream complement protein C3 exhibit defects in CNS synapse elimination.Stevens et al. 2007 [63]
C3/CR3Microglia engulf presynaptic inputs during peak retinogeniculate pruning through complement receptor 3(CR3)/C3. Microglia also regulate retinal ganglion cell elimination by CR3-mediated engulfment of nonapoptotic neurons.Schafer et al. 2012 [1]
Anderson et al. 2019 [57]
Syt11Syt11-knockdown increased cytokine secretion and nitric oxide release in primary microglia and enhanced microglial phagocytosis.Du et al. 2017 [125]
GPR34GPR34-deficient microglia showed reduced phagocytosis activity in both retina and acutely isolated cortical slices.Preissler et al. 2015 [126]
MerTKActivated microglia release Gal-3 and a neuraminidase that desialylates microglial surfaces, enabling their phagocytosis via MerTK.Grommes et al. 2008 [127]
Caberoy et al. 2012 [128]
Nomura et al. 2017 [129]
SykKnock down of endogenous Syk decreased microglia phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons.Scheib. et al. 2012 [130]