Loss or gain of Rho function has no effect on early expression of neural crest (NC)-specific genes. (A-C) Electroporation of C3/green fluorescent protein (GFP; green) followed by in situ hybridization for Snail2 (blue). (D-F) Electroporation of N19-RhoA/GFP (green) followed by in situ hybridization for FoxD3 (blue). (G-O) Electroporation of N19-RhoB/GFP (green) followed by in situ hybridization for FoxD3 (G-I), Sox9 (J-L) or Cad6B (M-O). Sox9 and Cadherin-6B are primarily expressed in the premigratory NC, hence in (L,O) most of the transfected progenitors undegoing early delamination (green) are unlabeled for the above genes. (P-R) Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)/pluronic gel placed on top of the dorsal portion of embryos and further processing for Sox9 in situ hybridization at epithelial and dissociating somite levels (ES and DS, respectively) and for Snail2 (R). Note that unilateral electroporation did not change the patterns of gene expression in the dorsal neural tube (NT) when compared to the contralateral sides or to control GFP embryos (not shown). Likewise, treatment with LPA did not alter either early gene expression or further maintenance despite inhibiting NC cell emigration. Bar: 45 μM.