Dorsal turning of motor corticospinal axons at the pyramidal decussation requires plexin signaling
- Regina L Faulkner†1,
- Lawrence K Low†1,
- Xiao-Bo Liu†1, 2,
- Jeffrey Coble1,
- Edward G Jones1, 3 and
- Hwai-Jong Cheng1, 4, 5Email author
© Faulkner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 07 March 2008
Accepted: 26 August 2008
Published: 26 August 2008
The development of the corticospinal tract (CST) in higher vertebrates relies on a series of axon guidance decisions along its long projection pathway. Several guidance molecules are known to be involved at various decision points to regulate the projection of CST axons. However, previous analyses of the CST guidance defects in mutant mice lacking these molecules have suggested that there are other molecules involved in CST axon guidance that are yet to be identified. In this study, we investigate the role of plexin signaling in the guidance of motor CST axons in vivo.
Expression pattern studies show that plexin-A3, plexin-A4, and neuropilin-1 are expressed in the developing cerebral cortex when the motor CST axons originating from layer V cortical neurons are guided down to the spinal cord. By analyzing mutant mice, we show that motor CST axons that turn dorsally to cross the midline at the pyramidal decussation require plexin-A3 and plexin-A4 signaling. Although other CST guidance defects are found in neuropilin-1 mutants, this dorsal turning defect is not observed in either neuropilin-1 or neuropilin-2 mutants, suggesting that the local cues that activate plexin signaling at the dorsal turning point are membrane-bound semaphorins. Further expression pattern study and mutant analysis indicate that Sema6A is one of the local cues for motor CST axon turning at the pyramidal decussation.
Dorsal turning and midline crossing at the pyramidal decussation is a crucial step to properly direct CST axons into the dorsal spinal cord. We show that the signaling of plexin-A3, plexin-A4, and Sema6A is at least partially required for dorsal turning of the CST axons, while neuropilin-1 is required for proper fasciculation of the tract at midline crossing. Together with previous reports, these results demonstrate that several guidance cues are specifically utilized to regulate the dorsal turning and midline crossing of developing CST axons.
Recent evidence has demonstrated that molecules involved in axon guidance elsewhere in the CNS are also involved in regulating axon guidance decisions made by the CST . Guidance of initial corticofugal projections to the cerebral peduncles is dependent on Slit function . When CST axons approach the pyramidal decussation at the caudal medulla, intact netrin signaling via DCC and Unc5h3 receptors is required to prevent axon mistargeting . The immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily molecules L1 and NCAM have been implicated in maintaining the fidelity of the CST bundle as it turns and crosses at the pyramidal decussation [13, 14]. As CST axons travel caudally from the decussation, repulsive cues by Wnt morphogens seem to determine the rostro-caudal positioning of the axons in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord . Finally, when CST axons collateralize within the contralateral gray matter of the spinal cord, ephrin signaling is required to prevent axon branches from re-crossing the midline [16, 17]. Together, the evidence demonstrates that the guidance choices of CST axons are highly dependent on the presence of local cues in their CNS environment. However, since loss of these molecules only results in partial defects in CST targeting, additional axon guidance signaling pathways might be involved in regulating CST axon targeting.
Plexins belong to families of axon guidance molecules that act as receptors for semaphorin ligands. Together, they are by far the largest family of axon guidance molecules. Membrane-bound semaphorins (classes 4–7) directly interact with and signal through plexins, whereas most secreted semaphorins (class 3) signal through a receptor complex composed of plexins and their co-receptors, neuropilin (NPN)-1 or NPN-2 [18, 19]. Semaphorin signaling through plexins is known to play roles in multiple aspects of neuronal development, and axon guidance is its most classical role [18–23]. Although several semaphorins have been shown to repel or attract neurites from cortical cultures in vitro [24–28], their roles in regulating the guidance of CST axons in vivo are still largely uncharacterized. Here we report that plexin (PLX)A3, PLXA4, and one of the membrane-bound semaphorins, Sema6A, are required for the dorsal turning of CST axons at the pyramidal decussation.
The expression of plexin-A3, plexin-A4, and neuropilin-1 in cortical neurons coincides with the guidance of motor CST axons
To address whether semaphorin signaling through plexins regulates the guidance of CST axons, we focused on PLXA3 and PLXA4, as well as neuropilins, NPN-1 and NPN-2, and analyzed their expression patterns in the developing neocortex. The mRNAs of PLXA3 and PLXA4 were broadly expressed throughout the cortex from embryonic day (E) 18 to postnatal day (P) 0, immediately after layer V pyramidal neurons are born and migrate to their appropriate layer in the neocortex (Figure 1b–c", and data not shown). NPN-1 was also expressed in the developing neocortex at P0, but its expression was more restricted (Figure 1d–d"). By P3, once most CST axons have reached their targets in the spinal cord, NPN-1 expression in the cortex was reduced while PLXA3 and PLXA4 expression levels were maintained (data not shown). By contrast, NPN-2 transcripts were not expressed in the cortex during this time window (Figure 1e–e"). CST axons arise predominantly from type I layer V neurons [7, 29], which specifically express a transcription factor, Ctip2 . We found that a majority of Ctip2 immuno-positive pyramidal neurons co-expressed mRNA for PLXA3, PLXA4, and NPN-1 at P0 (Figure 1b'–d'). These results suggest that PLXA3, PLXA4, and NPN-1 play roles in guiding the developing motor CST axons to the spinal cord. To confirm their roles in vivo, we investigated whether the guidance of motor CST axons is affected in mutant mice lacking these genes.
Plexin-A3 and plexin-A4 are required for dorsal turning of motor CST axons at the pyramidal decussation
A recent analysis of PLXA3 (PLXA3-/-) and PLXA4 mutant (PLXA4-/-) mice using NPN-1 expression as a marker suggested that NPN-1-positive axons projecting subcortically through the internal capsule and cerebral peduncles were defective in neonates . To examine whether the initial guidance of CST axons through these structures is normal in PLXA3/PLXA4 double mutant (PLXA3/PLXA4-/-) mice, we studied the CST projections by using both L1-immunostaining at P1  and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) anterograde tracing of the motor CST axons at P25. Although subtle defects cannot be completely ruled out, targeting as well as fasciculation of these axons as they entered the internal capsule and cerebral peduncles appeared normal in P1 PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice (n = 3) compared to wild-type (WT) mice (n = 3) (Figure 1f, g). When these initial projections from motor cortex were examined at P25 by BDA tracing, again the patterns were similar in WT (n = 3) and PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice (n = 3) (Figure 1h, i), even though we could not exclude the possibility that subtle defects early on were corrected over time. Our results suggest that the CST projection through the internal capsule appears normal in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice.
In the PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mutants, approximately one-half of the motor CST axons could still turn dorsally at the pyramidal decussation. These axons were properly guided across the midline and entered the dorsal funiculus in the spinal cord. This finding suggests that the turning is partially compensated for by other signaling in vivo. Alternatively, the partial defects in the plexin mutants may be due to the expression of PLXA3 and PLXA4 in a subset of CST axons. Given the broad expression patterns of these two genes (Figure 1b–c), it is more likely that additional molecules are required in the process. The properly guided CST axons in the spinal cord of PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice remained well fasciculated as their axon densities were normal compared to WT mice (Figure 2j). In addition, we did not observe any errors in the targeting of transient motor CST axon collaterals to the superior colliculus in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice (n = 3) at P9 (data not shown). Taken together, these results indicate that signaling through PLXA3 and PLXA4 is utilized at the pyramidal decussation to control the dorsal turning of the motor CST axons in vivo.
The abnormally guided CST axons in plexin-A3/plexin-A4 mutants do not cross the midline at the pyramidal decussation
To confirm that the misguided CST axons in mutant mice were motor axons, we labeled CST axons at P25 with an antibody against alpha calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CamKIIα), which is specifically upregulated in motor CST axons in mice older than three weeks of age . The results showed that the aberrant ventrolateral CST axons were labeled in bilateral regions of the medulla and spinal cord in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- (n = 4) but not WT (n = 3) mice (Figure 3e–h"), indicating that they are indeed CST motor axons. Since this marker stained all the motor axons, we also confirmed that the area of the dorsal funiculus occupied by CST axons in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice was considerably reduced compared to WT mice (Figure 3f', h', j).
We also assessed the individual contributions of PLXA3 and PLXA4 to the defect in single mutants. Although the phenotype was not present in all PLXA3-/- and PLXA4-/- mice, roughly equal numbers of PLXA3-/- and PLXA4-/- mice contained a ventrolateral CST (Figure 3i, and data not shown), suggesting that these two plexins partially compensate for each other's functions. Furthermore, we found that the area of the dorsal funiculus occupied by CST axons in PLXA3-/- and PLXA4-/- mice was smaller than in the WT, though the defect in the single mutants was less severe than in the PLXA3/PLXA4-/- animals (Figure 3j).
Misguided ventrolateral CST axons are not observed in neuropilin mutants
To further support the conclusion that secreted semaphorins are not involved in CST axon turning at the pyramidal decussation, we examined the projections of motor CST axons in Sema3A (Sema3A-/-) and Sema3E mutant (Sema3E-/-) mice. Sema3A is expressed in the ventral spinal cord during development and has been thought to play a role in CST guidance by interacting with NPN-1 and L1 based on in vitro analyses [25, 26]. In agreement with a recent report , we observed that the dorsal turning and midline crossing of motor CST axons at the pyramidal decussation was normal in Sema3A-/- mice (n = 3 BDA tracing, n = 2 CamKIIα immunostaining; Figure 4e–g). Further, in contrast to NPN-1sema-/- mice, we found that the fasciculation of axons crossing at the pyramidal decussation was normal in Sema3A-/- mice (Figure 4h). Sema3E has recently been shown to bind directly to plexin . We analyzed the expression pattern of Sema3E and found that Sema3E was not expressed in the ventral spinal cord. In accordance with this finding, we also found that the Sema3E-/- mice did not have a defect in CST axon guidance (n = 4; data not shown). Thus, our data support the role of PLXA3 and PLXA4 in CST axon turning at the pyramidal decussation that is independent of neuropilins and secreted semaphorins.
Sema6A is required for proper guidance of motor CST axons
The development of the CST has served as a classic example for studying the guidance of long-range axons [7, 9]. In the CNS, midline-crossing is an important phenomenon for the guidance of long axons [40, 41]. During development, the ventrally positioned CST axons make dorsal turns to cross the midline at the pyramidal decussation. Previous reports have indicated that multiple signaling systems are utilized to ensure the dorsal turning and midline crossing of CST axons at the pyramidal decussation . These include the netrin/DCC/Unc5h signaling system and the Ig superfamily signaling system. We report here that the semaphorin/plexin signaling system is also involved in guiding CST axons dorsally at the pyramidal decussation.
By comparing the reported CST defects in mutant mice from these signaling systems, we find that they may function in a cooperative fashion to regulate the guidance of CST axons at the pyramidal decussation. However, major phenotypical differences are also noted between different systems. In the netrin/DCC/Unc5h signaling system , netrin is expressed at the midline beneath the central canal at the point at which CST axons decussate. DCC and Unc5h are netrin receptors responsible for axon attraction and repulsion, respectively. In DCC mutants, CST axons are not attracted by the midline netrin signal so the axons do not make the dorsal turn at the decussation and all the CST axons remain within the ventral spinal cord. In Unc5h3 mutants, some CST axons stay ventrolaterally, whereas others can turn dorsally and cross the midline. However, in contrast to what we have observed in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice, those Unc5h3 mutant axons that cross the midline do not target the dorsal funiculus, but enter the dorsal gray matter instead. Thus, the netrin/DCC/Unc5h signaling system seems to mainly control the dorsal turning of CST axons at the pyramidal decussation and the proper targeting of CST axons to the dorsal funiculus.
The roles of the Ig superfamily signaling system in regulating the dorsal turning and midline crossing of CST axons are diverse . In young NCAM mutant mice , many CST axons fail to turn dorsally and remain in the ventrolateral spinal cord. Among the mutant axons that make the dorsal turn at the pyramidal decussation, many fail to cross the midline and instead project to the ipsilateral dorsal funiculus. However, the abnormal CST axons are absent in adult NCAM mice, suggesting either a correction or loss of aberrant fibers. In adult L1 mutants , all CST axons turn dorsally at the pyramidal decussation, but many of them stay ipsilateral as they project to the dorsal funiculus. Therefore, the Ig superfamily signaling system seems to control both dorsal turning and midline crossing of the CST axons. It is interesting to note that the L1 subfamily of Ig molecules, including L1, NrCAM, and CHL1, also interact with neuropilins to mediate the signals from secreted semaphorins [25, 26, 43, 44]. In vitro evidence has suggested that Sema3A signaling through an L1/NPN-1 complex contributes to midline crossing of CST axons at the pyramidal decussation . However, in vivo analysis of the Sema3A-/- mouse by our lab and others  indicates no defects in dorsal turning or midline crossing of the CST in this mutant. We also show that, in contrast to L1 mutant mice, all the CST axons cross the midline in NPN-1-/- mice even though they are defasciculated. These results suggest NPN-1 and L1 function independently in regulating CST guidance at the pyramidal decussation. Recently, CHL1 has been shown to function together with NPN-1 to mediate the guidance of thalamocortical axons in vivo . It would be interesting to test whether CHL1 is also involved in CST axon guidance.
Several recent reports have nicely addressed the interactions between class 6 semaphorins and plexin-A family members. Specifically, it has been shown that PLXA4 directly binds Sema6A, and their interactions in vivo are important for the lamina-specific projection of mossy fibers in the hippocampus  and for the short-range repulsion of developing sympathetic axons . In addition, it has been shown that Sema6A binds PLXA2 , which is also expressed in the motor cortex during CST axon guidance (data not shown). However, analysis of the PLXA2 mutant mouse revealed no defects in CST axon guidance (KJ Mitchell, personal communication). We have previously shown that PLXA3 and PLXA4 are co-expressed in neuronal tissues to mediate axon repulsion, axon pruning and neuronal migration [46–49], but these functions are mostly activated by secreted semaphorins. Here, our phenotypic analysis in mutant mice suggests that PLXA3 and PLXA4 may function with membrane-bound Sema6A in vivo. However, it is still unclear whether PLXA3 can directly bind to Sema6A, and how PLXA3 and PLXA4 interact to mediate Sema6A signals. It is also important to note that the CST guidance defects in Sema6A-/- mice are apparently more diverse and more severe than in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice. Although no apparent CST guidance defects were noted before axons reached the hindbrain in PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice, guidance defects have been noted at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary in Sema6A-/- mice (KJ Mitchell, personal communication). This defect higher up in the CST projection pathway may account for the more severe defect in CST guidance across the pyramidal decussation seen in some Sema6A-/- mice. It is now apparent that CST axons are guided by specific signals at different choice points to reach their distant targets. The phenotypic differences between Sema6A-/- and PLXA3/PLXA4-/- mice indicate that other plexin or non-plexin receptors may also be used to mediate Sema6A signals in the guidance of motor CST axons.
We have characterized the roles of PLXA3, PLXA4, NPN-1, NPN-2, Sema3A, Sema3E, and Sema6A in regulating the guidance of motor CST axons to the dorsal spinal cord in vivo (summarized in Figure 6). We find that PLXA3, PLXA4, and Sema6A are required for the proper dorsal turning of motor CST axons at the pyramidal decussation. As motor CST axons are crossing the midline, we find that NPN-1 is required for CST axons to remain fasciculated so they may target the dorsal funiculus appropriately. However, PLXA3 and PLXA4 are either compensated for by other receptors in this process or not required. We also find that the dorsal turning and midline crossing of motor CST axons are normal in NPN-2, Sema3A, and Sema3E mutants. Although many questions remain, it is evident that semaphorin signaling is one of several signaling systems that coordinate at specific points along the pathway to properly guide the long CST axons from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord.
Materials and methods
Animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at UC Davis. Genotyping on knockout mice was carried out as described previously [34, 35, 49–52]. NPN-1sema-/- mice were obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Sema3A-/- mice were a generous gift from Mark Fishman and Marc Tessier-Lavigne. Sema3E-/- and Sema6A-/- mice were a generous gift from Marc Tessier-Lavigne.
Mouse tracer injections
Wild-type and mutant mice were injected with various tracers at different postnatal ages (P0 to P45). DiI (Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and BDA (Molecular Probes) anterograde tracing was performed as described previously [53, 54]. Mice were injected blindly prior to determining genotype. Briefly, DiI (20% in N,N-dimethylformamide) or BDA (10–20% in phosphate buffered saline) were injected focally in the motor cortex of WT and mutant mice in vivo and allowed to trace for a minimum of three days. Locations of the injection sites were confirmed in sagittal sections of the cortex to ensure tracers were injected in the appropriate regions of the cortex.
Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and EM processing
Immunohistochemistry was performed on floating sections as described previously . Antibodies and concentrations used in the study were: CamKIIα (1:1,000; Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA), Ctip2 (1:1,000; Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA), and L1 (1:1,000; Chemicon). The plexin and neuropilin probes for in situ hybridization and the procedures for radioactive α-33P in situ hybridization were as described previously [51, 56]. The procedure for non-radioactive in situ hybridization was as described previously . Sections that contained BDA-labeled CST axons were preserved for ultrastructural analysis with EM as described .
Analysis of CamKIIα immunostained spinal cord sections
Transverse sections of CamKIIα-immunostained at the level of the pyramidal decussation or cervical spinal cord were selected for analysis. Raw images of the sections were digitally captured with a CCD camera (Zeiss, Thornwood, NY, USA) and imported into PhotoShop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA). For quantification of CST area in the dorsal funiciulus, images were cropped and only the dorsal funiculus area was preserved for further analysis. Grayscaled images were thresholded to 30% above background levels as described . Pixels that were above threshold were considered as positive labeling and these areas were measured using Image J (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). Positively labeled areas were subsequently normalized to the total area of the dorsal funiculus. For quantification of fasciculation at the pyramidal decussation, the width of the pyramidal decussation was measured in all available brainstem sections containing it.
Statistics for all data were obtained from Statistica 6.0 (Statsoft, Tulsa, OK, USA) or Microsoft Excel with a Benjamini and Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons.
Biotinylated dextran amine
alpha calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II
Central nervous system
We thank Phong Nguyen, Maggie Chen, Shawn Mikula, Alessandro Graziano, Karl Murray, and Florence Dorazi for technical assistance and members of the Cheng lab and Jones lab for valuable discussions and comments. This research was supported by grants from the Whitehall Foundation, the Klingenstein Fund, the Sloan Foundation, the Autism Speaks/National Alliance for Autism Research, the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, and the NIH (HD045757) to H-JC.
- Dickson BJ: Molecular mechanisms of axon guidance. Science. 2002, 298: 1959-1964.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huber AB, Kolodkin AL, Ginty DD, Cloutier JF: Signaling at the growth cone: ligand-receptor complexes and the control of axon growth and guidance. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2003, 26: 509-563.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tessier-Lavigne M, Goodman CS: The molecular biology of axon guidance. Science. 1996, 274: 1123-1133.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jones EG, Schreyer DJ, Wise SP: Growth and maturation of the rat corticospinal tract. Prog Brain Res. 1982, 57: 361-379.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin JH: The corticospinal system: from development to motor control. Neuroscientist. 2005, 11: 161-173.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Leary DD, Koester SE: Development of projection neuron types, axon pathways, and patterned connections of the mammalian cortex. Neuron. 1993, 10: 991-1006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stanfield BB: The development of the corticospinal projection. Prog Neurobiol. 1992, 38: 169-202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terashima T: Anatomy, development and lesion-induced plasticity of rodent corticospinal tract. Neurosci Res. 1995, 22: 139-161.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Luo L, O'Leary DD: Axon retraction and degeneration in development and disease. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2005, 28: 127-156.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canty AJ, Murphy M: Molecular mechanisms of axon guidance in the developing corticospinal tract. Prog Neurobiol. 2008, 85: 214-235.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagri A, Marin O, Plump AS, Mak J, Pleasure SJ, Rubenstein JL, Tessier-Lavigne M: Slit proteins prevent midline crossing and determine the dorsoventral position of major axonal pathways in the mammalian forebrain. Neuron. 2002, 33: 233-248.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finger JH, Bronson RT, Harris B, Johnson K, Przyborski SA, Ackerman SL: The netrin 1 receptors Unc5h3 and Dcc are necessary at multiple choice points for the guidance of corticospinal tract axons. J Neurosci. 2002, 22: 10346-10356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen NR, Taylor JS, Scott LB, Guillery RW, Soriano P, Furley AJ: Errors in corticospinal axon guidance in mice lacking the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. Curr Biol. 1998, 8: 26-33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rolf B, Bastmeyer M, Schachner M, Bartsch U: Pathfinding errors of corticospinal axons in neural cell adhesion molecule-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2002, 22: 8357-8362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu Y, Shi J, Lu CC, Wang ZB, Lyuksyutova AI, Song XJ, Zou Y: Ryk-mediated Wnt repulsion regulates posterior-directed growth of corticospinal tract. Nat Neurosci. 2005, 8: 1151-1159.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dottori M, Hartley L, Galea M, Paxinos G, Polizzotto M, Kilpatrick T, Bartlett PF, Murphy M, Kontgen F, Boyd AW: EphA4 (Sek1) receptor tyrosine kinase is required for the development of the corticospinal tract. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998, 95: 13248-13253.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kullander K, Croll SD, Zimmer M, Pan L, McClain J, Hughes V, Zabski S, DeChiara TM, Klein R, Yancopoulos GD, Gale NW: Ephrin-B3 is the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract axons from recrossing, allowing for unilateral motor control. Genes Dev. 2001, 15: 877-888.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pasterkamp RJ, Kolodkin AL: Semaphorin junction: making tracks toward neural connectivity. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003, 13: 79-89.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tran TS, Kolodkin AL, Bharadwaj R: Semaphorin regulation of cellular morphology. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2007, 23: 263-292.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- He Z, Wang KC, Koprivica V, Ming G, Song HJ: Knowing how to navigate: mechanisms of semaphorin signaling in the nervous system. Sci STKE. 2002, RE1-Google Scholar
- Pasterkamp RJ, Verhaagen J: Semaphorins in axon regeneration: developmental guidance molecules gone wrong?. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006, 361: 1499-1511.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waimey KE, Cheng HJ: Axon pruning and synaptic development: how are they per-plexin?. Neuroscientist. 2006, 12: 398-409.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fujisawa H: Discovery of semaphorin receptors, neuropilin and plexin, and their functions in neural development. J Neurobiol. 2004, 59: 24-33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagnard D, Lohrum M, Uziel D, Puschel AW, Bolz J: Semaphorins act as attractive and repulsive guidance signals during the development of cortical projections. Development. 1998, 125: 5043-5053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Castellani V, Chedotal A, Schachner M, Faivre-Sarrailh C, Rougon G: Analysis of the L1-deficient mouse phenotype reveals cross-talk between Sema3A and L1 signaling pathways in axonal guidance. Neuron. 2000, 27: 237-249.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Castellani V, De Angelis E, Kenwrick S, Rougon G: Cis and trans interactions of L1 with neuropilin-1 control axonal responses to semaphorin 3A. EMBO J. 2002, 21: 6348-6357.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chauvet S, Cohen S, Yoshida Y, Fekrane L, Livet J, Gayet O, Segu L, Buhot MC, Jessell TM, Henderson CE, Mann F: Gating of Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling by neuropilin-1 switches axonal repulsion to attraction during brain development. Neuron. 2007, 56: 807-822.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Polleux F, Morrow T, Ghosh A: Semaphorin 3A is a chemoattractant for cortical apical dendrites. Nature. 2000, 404: 567-573.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Molnar Z, Cheung AF: Towards the classification of subpopulations of layer V pyramidal projection neurons. Neurosci Res. 2006, 55: 105-115.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arlotta P, Molyneaux BJ, Chen J, Inoue J, Kominami R, Macklis JD: Neuronal subtype-specific genes that control corticospinal motor neuron development in vivo. Neuron. 2005, 45: 207-221.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bechara A, Nawabi H, Moret F, Yaron A, Weaver E, Bozon M, Abouzid K, Guan J-L, Tessier-Lavigne M, Lemmon V, Castellani V: FAK-MAPK-dependent adhesion disassembly downstream of L1 contributes to semaphorin3A-induced collapse. EMBO J. 2008, 27: 1549-1562.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fujimori KE, Takeuchi K, Yazaki T, Uyemura K, Nojyo Y, Tamamki N: Expression of L1 and TAG-1 in the corticospinal, callosal, and hippocampal commissural neurons in the developing rat telencephalon as revealed by retrograde and in situ hybridization double labeling. J Comp Neurol. 2000, 417: 275-288.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terashima T, Ochiishi T, Yamauchi T: Alpha calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II immunoreactivity in corticospinal neurons: combination of axonal transport method and immunofluorescence. Anat Embryol. 1995, 192: 123-136.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Bagri A, Zupicich JA, Zou Y, Stoeckli E, Pleasure SJ, Lowenstein DH, Skarnes WC, Chedotal A, Tessier-Lavigne M: Neuropilin-2 regulates the development of selective cranial and sensory nerves and hippocampal mossy fiber projections. Neuron. 2000, 25: 43-56.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gu C, Rodriguez ER, Reimert DV, Shu T, Fritzsch B, Richards LJ, Kolodkin AL, Ginty DD: Neuropilin-1 conveys semaphorin and VEGF signaling during neural and cardiovascular development. Dev Cell. 2003, 5: 45-57.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sibbe M, Taniguchi M, Schachner M, Bartsch U: Development of the corticospinal tract in Semaphorin3A- and CD24-deficient mice. Neuroscience. 2007, 150: 898-904.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gu C, Yoshida Y, Livet J, Reimert DV, Mann F, Merte J, Henderson CE, Jessell TM, Kolodkin AL, Ginty DD: Semaphorin 3E and plexin-D1 control vascular pattern independently of neuropilins. Science. 2005, 307: 265-268.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suto F, Ito K, Uemura M, Shimizu M, Shinkawa Y, Sanbo M, Shinoda T, Tsuboi M, Takashima S, Yagi T, Fujisawa H: Plexin-a4 mediates axon-repulsive activities of both secreted and transmembrane semaphorins and plays roles in nerve fiber guidance. J Neurosci. 2005, 25: 3628-3637.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suto F, Tsuboi M, Kamiya H, Mizuno H, Kiyama Y, Komai S, Shimizu M, Sanbo M, Yagi T, Hiromi Y, Chedotal A, Mitchell KJ, Manabe T, Fujisawa H: Interactions between Plexin-A2, Plexin-A4, and Semaphorin 6A control lamina-restricted projection of hippocampal mossy fibers. Neuron. 2007, 53: 535-547.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colamarino SA, Tessier-Lavigne M: The role of the floor plate in axon guidance. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1995, 18: 497-529.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaprielian Z, Runko E, Imondi R: Axon guidance at the midline choice point. Dev Dyn. 2001, 221: 154-181.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maness PF, Schachner M: Neural recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily: signaling transducers of axon guidance and neuronal migration. Nat Neurosci. 2007, 10: 19-26.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Falk J, Bechara A, Fiore R, Nawabi H, Zhou H, Hoyo-Becerra C, Bozon M, Rougon G, Grumet M, Puschel AW, Sanes JR, Castellani V: Dual functional activity of semaphorin 3B is required for positioning the anterior commissure. Neuron. 2005, 48: 63-75.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wright AG, Demyanenko GP, Powell A, Schachner M, Enriquez-Barrerto L, Tran TS, Polleux F, Maness PF: Close homolog of L1 and Neuropilin 1 mediate guidance of thalamocortical axons at the ventral telencephalon. J Neurosci. 2007, 27: 13667-13679.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Renaud J, Kerjan G, Sumita I, Zagar Y, Georget V, Kim D, Fouquet C, Suda K, Sanbo M, Suto F, Ackerman SL, Mitchell KJ, Fujisawa H, Chedotal A: Plexin-A2 and its ligand, Sema6A, control nucleus-centrosome coupling in migrating granule cells. Nat Neurosci. 2008, 11: 440-449.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagri A, Cheng HJ, Yaron A, Pleasure SJ, Tessier-Lavigne M: Stereotyped pruning of long hippocampal axon branches triggered by retraction inducers of the semaphorin family. Cell. 2003, 113: 285-299.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Faulkner RL, Low LK, Cheng HJ: Axon pruning in the developing vertebrate hippocampus. Dev Neurosci. 2007, 29: 6-13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waimey KE, Huang PH, Chen M, Cheng HJ: Plexin-A3 and Plexin-A4 restrict the migration of sympathetic neurons but not their neural crest precursors. Dev Biol. 2008, 315: 448-458.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yaron A, Huang PH, Cheng HJ, Tessier-Lavigne M: Differential requirement for Plexin-A3 and -A4 in mediating responses of sensory and sympathetic neurons to distinct class 3 Semaphorins. Neuron. 2005, 45: 513-523.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Behar O, Golden JA, Mashimo H, Schoen FJ, Fishman MC: Semaphorin III is needed for normal patterning and growth of nerves, bones and heart. Nature. 1996, 383: 525-528.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheng HJ, Bagri A, Yaron A, Stein E, Pleasure SJ, Tessier-Lavigne M: Plexin-A3 mediates semaphorin signaling and regulates the development of hippocampal axonal projections. Neuron. 2001, 32: 249-263.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leighton PA, Mitchell KJ, Goodrich LV, Lu X, Pinson K, Scherz P, Skarnes WC, Tessier-Lavigne M: Defining brain wiring patterns and mechanisms through gene trapping in mice. Nature. 2001, 410: 174-179.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brosamle C, Schwab ME: Cells of origin, course, and termination patterns of the ventral, uncrossed component of the mature rat corticospinal tract. J Comp Neurol. 1997, 386: 293-303.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Leary DD, Terashima T: Cortical axons branch to multiple subcortical targets by interstitial axon budding: implications for target recognition and "waiting periods". Neuron. 1988, 1: 901-910.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu XB, Low LK, Jones EG, Cheng HJ: Stereotyped axon pruning via plexin signaling is associated with synaptic complex elimination in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005, 25: 9124-9134.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu XB, Murray KD, Jones EG: Switching of NMDA receptor 2A and 2B subunits at thalamic and cortical synapses during early postnatal development. J Neurosci. 2004, 24: 8885-8895.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stellwagen D, Shatz CJ: An instructive role for retinal waves in the development of retinogeniculate connectivity. Neuron. 2002, 33: 357-367.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.